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Gas Pressure Regulator - an essential tool for gas handling system is a device to control ‘downstream pressure’ from ‘upstream source’ in line with required working pressure that allows optimum gas to flow into the system. To use in Specialty Gases, the regulator must be made with stainless steel or chrome-plated brass depending on the purity level and corrosiveness of the pure gas or gas mixture. For ultra-high pure gases, regulators are typically stainless steel with a stainless steel diaphragm mechanically linked to the poppet assembly to provide additional sealing integrity. Apart from being a high sensitive control device Diaphragm also prevents the diffusion of atmospheric oxygen into the carrier gases.
For reduction of pressure, usually Regulator is manufactured in two different designs, either (a) Single Stage or (b) 2-Stages. Single stage Pressure Regulator reduces cylinder pressure to delivery or outlet pressure in one step whether in Two-stage Pressure Regulator process completes in two steps. Two most important variables for these two different designs are (a) Droop and (b) Supply Pressure Effect. Droop is the difference in Delivery pressure between zero flow condition and Regulator’s maximum flow capacity. Supply Pressure Effect is the variation in Delivery Pressure as Supply Pressure decreases. The Single-Stage Pressure Regulator shows little droop with varying Flow rates, but a relatively low large Supply Pressure Effect. Conversely, the Double Stage Regulator shows a considerable droop, but only small Supply Pressure Effect.
For Pressure Control either stainless steel Diaphragm (for low and medium pressure at downstream) or stainless steel Piston (for high downstream pressure) is used.
Specialty gas regulator applications are divided into three types. The first is where the regulator is fastened to a gas cylinder using a cylinder connection fittings (IS 3224, DIN, BIS, CGA or others). The second application is where the regulator is fitted in a manifold or in a panel. The third application is where the regulator is located in a line providing a means to further reduce the line pressure. The Line Regulator is identified by having the inlet and outlet opposite of each other with a single gauge in the 12’o clock position to indicate the reduced pressure.
To read inlet and out pressures in Regulator, Pressure Gauges are fitted. Inlet pressure gauge indicates is cylinder pressure or the source pressure. Outlet Pressure gauge shows the pressure at which it is being delivered in the system. Out let pressure is adjustable if not pre-set, within the designed Range. Range of Pressure gauge is selected about 70 to 80 percent higher than the maximum working or operating Pressure.
Inlet Connection of Regulator designed on the basis of Cylinder threading or source connection. Outlet Connection depends on (a) outlet tube size; (b) outlet fitting required either ferrule fitting or push-fit or other fittings.